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Composite Materials

Various composite materials are used in structures such as the Boeing 777 because of their strength, and weight savings. Composites also offer resistance to fatigue, corrosion and impact damage.

Composites are different from metals. They are combinations of materials differing in composition or form. The constituents retain their identities in the composites and do not dissolve or otherwise merge completely into each other although they act together. Reinforced concrete is an excellent example of a composite structure in which the concrete and steel still retain their identities. The steel bars carry the tension loads and the concrete carries the compression loads. In aircraft construction the term composite structures refers to fabric resin combinations in which the fabric is embedded in the resin but still retains its identity.

Advanced composite materials consist of new high strength fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix. These composites provide for major weight savings in airplane structures since they have high strength to weight ratios. When replacing aluminum structure with graphite/epoxy composite weight reductions of 20% or better are possible. Weight reduction is the greatest advantage of composite material and is one of the key items in decisions regarding its selection. other advantages over conventional structure include its high corrosion resistance and its resistance to damage from cyclic loading (fatigue).

The major disadvantage of using advanced composite materials in airplane construction is the relatively high cost of the materials.

Composite Hybrids: Hybrids are made by the addition of some complementary material such as fiberglass or kevlar to the basic carbon fiber/epoxy matrix. The added materials are used to obtain specific material characteristics such as greater fracture toughness and impact resistance, and should be considered for areas subject to foreign object damage. The addition of carbon / epoxy to fiberglass structure is used to provide additional stiffness.


Inside The Engine Radial

Master-and-articulating-rod Assembly

The master-and-articulating-rod assembly is used on X-type engines, radial-type engines, and on some V-type engines. The master rod is similar to any other connecting rod except that it is constructed to provide for the attachment of the articulated rods on the big end.

The articulated rods are fastened by knuckle pins to a flange around the master rod. Each articulated connecting rod has a bushing of nonferrous metal, usually bronze, pressed or shrunk into place to serve as a knuckle-pin bearing. The knuckle pins may be held tightly in the master-rod holes by press fit and lock plates or they may be of the full-floating type.

If the big end of the master rod is made of two pieces, the cap and the rod, the crankshaft is made of one solid piece. on the other hand, if the rod is made of one piece, then the crankshaft may be of either two-piece or three-piece construction. Regardless of the type of construction, the usual bearing surfaces must be supplied.

It should be understood that the type of connecting rod used in an engine depends largely on the cylinder arrangement. If the cylinders are arranged in a line parallel to the crankshaft, the connecting rod is similar to that used in most automobile engines. However, certain types of aircraft engines have a system of connecting rods connected to the same crankshaft bearing, called an articulating connecting-rod assembly. The main rod or master rod joins one of the pistons with the crankshaft, and the other rods, called articulating rods or link rods, connect the other pistons to this same master connecting rod.


AirAsia And Sime Darby Confirm Interest In Developing New LCCT - malaysiakini

KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 23 -- AirAsia and Sime Darby Bhd have confirmed their interest in jointly developing and operating a private Low-Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT) in Labu, Negri Sembilan.

In its filing to Bursa Malaysia, AirAsia said both had jointly expressed an interest to the government on this matter.

"The LCCT project is in the initial planning phase. The company and Sime Darby are engaged in preliminary discussions with state and federal authorities," it said today.

Meanwhile, Sime Darby, in a separate filing said the collaboration was an intergral part of the company's plan for its Negeri Sembilan Vision City (NSVC).

The NSVC is part of Sime Darby's Central Vision Valley property development project spanning Selangor and Negeri Sembilan.

It was reported that Sime Darby, who will build the airport, is expected to take up a majority stake in the joint venture. AirAsia will operate the airport.

The proposed LCCT has attracted various parties interested in setting up operations there,including Tune Hotel, a bus terminal, retail malls and factories.


The East Zone is launched... (from left to right) Dato' Azmi Murad, Dato' Seri Bashir Ahmad, Pn. Fai' zah Khairuddin and Tn. Hj. Umar Bustamam


Second Phase of KLIA Shopping Campaign Launched to Continue Rewarding Shoppers at the Airport

SEPANG, 9 December 2008 – Malaysia Airports Holdings Berhad (Malaysia Airports) earlier today unveiled the completed first phase of the KL International Airport (KLIA) Satellite Retail Optimisation Project (SROP). The 14-month SROP, which began on May 18, 2008 is set to transform the shopping experience at the Satellite Building and is undertaken in a phase-by-phase approach to minimize disruption to the airport operations. The launch of the new East Zone also signaled the start of the second phase of the ongoing KLIA Shopping Campaign, which offers up a total of RM 2.7 million worth of prizes to shoppers at KLIA and LCCT-KLIA.

Malaysia Airports Managing Director Dato’ Seri Bashir Ahmad said, “The launch today not only marks the completion of the fist phase of the SROP on the targeted time but also the continuance of the KLIA Shopping Campaign which started in August this year. As KLIA improves and gets better for passengers, we are also rewarding travellers who shop at the airport. Combined, the KLIA Shopping Campaign and SROP are aimed at rewarding shoppers while providing them with competitive retail experience that surpasses other airports in terms of variety and price.”

The transformation of East Zone that started in May 2008 was completed as scheduled on October 17, 2008. Works at the East Zone, which took 5 months to complete gave this wing a new definitive look that is more contemporary.

The newly transformed East Zone also marks the birth and presence of new outlets at the Satellite Building namely Choc Shop International, Dome, Eraman Malaysia, Harrods, Handicraft outlet - Made in Malaysia, L’Occitane, My Gadgets electronic store, Sports and Luggage, Pusrawi Medicare, RHB Bureau de Change and Tie Rack.

In conjunction with the unveiling of the new East Zone, the KLIA Shopping Campaign also featured a special opening promotion designed to make shopping more exciting at the new East Zone. Emphasising the attractive pricing of items at KLIA, the ‘Guess the Price’ game is open to shoppers who spend just RM150 (USD 45) and above at the East Zone outlets. Guess the Price’ requires shoppers to guess the cumulative price of the items displayed at the booth, all of which are available at the East Zone. All participants of the game will walk away with a token and if guessed correctly, shoppers stand a chance to win up to RM500 (USD140) worth of shopping voucher to do a little bit more shopping at KLIA. The ‘Guess the Price’ game will be available for a limited time, until the end of December in accordance with this season of giving and shopping for gifts.

”Shoppers at KLIA will be also pleased to know that this second phase of the KLIA Shopping Campaign will overall reward shoppers with even more prizes. This time round, shoppers who spend just RM150 (USD 45) and above are automatically entitled to vie for lucrative prizes which include a top seasonal Bumper Prize of RM40,000 worth of travel package to any destination of their choice,” said Dato’ Seri Bashir.

“With the special promotions and especially the increase in the variety of offerings, shoppers at KLIA will have a more exciting and enriched shopping experience at KLIA. Further strengthened by our KLIA Shopping Campaign, shoppers at KLIA will be rewarded and stand to win a myriad of exciting prizes just for shopping here. Also, with our Low Price Guaranteed programme, shoppers will find that shopping at KLIA is comparable if not better than shopping downtown,” Dato’ Seri Bashir added.

The second shopping contest under the KLIA Shopping Campaign offers up for grabs RM 500,000 worth of prizes to lucky winners including travel packages worth up to a total of RM 250,000 and more. Ultimately, shoppers may drive away with a brand new luxury car. Besides the main prizes, shoppers are rewarded with instant gratification for their support and participation in the campaign.

The KLIA Shopping Campaign is divided into three shopping contests, each with its luring Grand Prizes, weekly prizes and instant gifts. Participants in any of the three contests also stand a chance to drive home the ultimate Grand Prize of an award winning, brand new RM 420,000 Lexus GS300.

In total, there are RM 2.7 million worth of prizes to be won through the KLIA Shopping Campaign. Among the Grand Prizes are RM 520,000 cash, RM 280,000 worth of travel packages to exciting places around the globe and a host of other prizes to reward shoppers who just spend a minimum amount of RM150 at KLIA or LCCT-KLIA.

Official sponsors of the KLIA Shopping Campaign 2008/2009 are MasterCard International and Lexus. MasterCard holders who make purchases with their card in KLIA stand to double their winning chances at the KLIA Shopping Campaign.

To find out more about the shopping contest, log on to or visit our redemption booths at KLIA.

About Malaysia Airports

Malaysia Airports operates and manages 39 airports in Malaysia: 5 international, 16 domestic and 18 Short Take-Off and Landing Ports (STOL Ports). It also has operations in Kazakhstan, IndiaTurkey. On November 30 1999, Malaysia Airports became the first airport company to be listed in Asia. KL International Airport (KLIA), its flagship airport was thrice voted as the World's Best Airport (15-25 million passengers per annum) in the 2005 AETRA awards, 2006 ACI-ASQ awards and 2007 ACI-ASQ awards while the Low Cost Carrier Terminal (LCCT-KLIA) was named CAPA Low Cost Airport of the Year at the CAPA Aviation Awards for Excellence 2006. KLIA was also voted 2nd Best AirportAsia Pacific categories for 2007 ACI-ASQ awards. Malaysia Airports has also been entrusted to host the 2008 World Route Development Forum (ROUTES), the first airport operator in Asia to be given the honor of hosting the world-class airport-airlines event.


AirAsia Offers 100,000 Free Seats In Massive Regional Campaign - malaysiakini

KUALA LUMPUR - AirAsia is offering 100,000 free seats from its hubs primarily in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur, Johor), Thailand (Bangkok) and Indonesia (Jakarta) in its massive regional marketing campaign as part of its initiative to support Thailand's travel, trade and tourism.

The campaign, aptly themed "Get Your Baht To Thailand", "Mai Pen Rai Thailand" and "Same Same Thailand".

The Thailand tourism sector has been severely affected by the declining number of visitors due to the recent political upheaval.

This proactive campaign, initiated by the "People's Airline", is a joint collaboration between AirAsia and Tourism Authority of Thailand to bring back tourists and businessmen by reinstating the core message that it is now safe to travel back to the country.

In a statement Tuesday, AirAsia Group Chief Executive Officer Datuk Seri Tony Fernandes said the airline hoped this campaign will instil confidence among travellers and help boost tourism.

"With close to 800 domestic and international flights weekly to and from various points in Thailand, we are more than confident the country's tourism will bounce back," he said.

The 100,000 free seats allocation include all international flights on AirAsia's route network in Thailand.

Free seats are also available for domestic destinations. The seats also include routes from Kuala Lumpur to Phuket, Chiang Mai and Krabi.

This regional campaign will be launched exclusively online at for the booking period between Dec 17-19 for travel between Jan 6 and March 31, 2009.


MAS To Open Ticketing Office At Subang SkyPark - malaysiakini

KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 15 -- Malaysia Airlines (MAS) will open a ticketing office at the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport's Subang SkyPark by February next year to cater to the needs of customers, particularly those in the suburban areas.

"The new office will offer all services for MAS, Firefly, MASWing and many more," said MAS chairman Tan Sri Dr Munir Majid.

Construction work will start next week, he said at the airline's newly upgraded ticketing office at KL Sentral here today.

MAS currently has ticketing offices at Putrajaya, KL Sentral and the Kuala Lumpur International Airport.

Operations at its former head office in Jalan Sultan Ismail here will be closed down.

On the new upgraded office, Munir said its was part of the airline's plan to consolidate its ticketing operations in the Klang Valley.

The KL Sentral office, which is currently serving more than 20,000 customers a month, is operating daily from 4.30am to midnight daily.

Asked about target sales after the upgrading exercise, Munir said: "Sales will increase not just by having the office, but having products that attract people to come to our outlet."

"For example, sales have increased tremendously when the Everyday Low Fares promotion was introduced," he said.

Munir said low fares campaign resulted in a 150 percent increase in online bookings.

"In Australia, online ticketing sales increased by 1,700 percent," he said.

Aircraft Engine Theory - The Four-Stroke Five-Event-Cycle Principle

The Intake or Admission Strok

During the intake or admission stroke, the piston moves downward as a charge of combustible fuel and air is admitted into the cylinder through the open intake valve. At the completion of this stroke the intake valve closes. This is event No. 1.

The Compression Stroke

During the compression stroke, the crankshaft continues to rotate, the piston is forced upward in the cylinder, and both intake and exhaust valves are closed. The movement of the piston upward compresses the fuel-air mixture. This is event No. 2.

Power or Expansion Stroke

As the piston approaches the top of its stroke within the cylinder, an electric spark jumps across the points of the spark plugs and ignites the compressed fuel-air mixture. This is the ignition event, or event No. 3. The intake and exhaust valves are closed.

Having been ignited, the fuel-air mixture burns. It expands as it burns and drives the piston downward. This causes the crankshaft to revolve. Since it is the only stroke and event that furnishes power to the crankshaft, it is usually called the power stroke, although it is sometimes called the expansion stroke for purposes of instruction. This is event No. 4. The intake and exhaust valves are closed.

The Exhaust or Scavenging Stroke

During the power or expansion stroke, the hot gases obtained by combustion exert tremendous pressure on the piston to force it to move downward, but near the end of the stroke this pressure is greatly reduced because of the expansion of the gases. At this stage, the exhaust valve opens as the crankshaft continues to revolve and the piston is again moved upward in the cylinder by the connecting rod. The burning gases remaining in the cylinder are forced out through the exhaust valve, hence this stroke is usually called the exhaust stroke, although it may be called the scavenging stroke for purposes of instruction. This is event No. 5. One engine cycle has been completed.

Summary of Events

To summarize the events, it is found that the charge of fuel and air was admitted into the cylinder during the intake stroke (event No. 1); the piston compressed the fuel-air mixture during the compression stroke (event No. 2); the electric spark ignited the compressed fuel-air mixture as the piston approached the top of its stroke within the cylinder (event No. 3); the fuel-air mixture burned and the expanding gases drove the piston downward during the power stroke (event No. 4); the burned gasses were forced out of the cylinder during the exhaust stroke (event No. 5)."

This five-event sequence of intake, compression, ignition, power, and exhaust, is a cycle which must take place in the order given if the engine is to operate at all, and it must be repeated over and over for the engine to continue operation.

None of the five events can be omitted, and each event must take place in the proper sequence. For example, if the gasoline supply is shut off, there can be no power event, but the mixture of gasoline and air must be admitted to the cylinder during the intake stroke. Likewise, if the ignition switch is turned off, there can be no power event, but the ignition must occur before the power stroke can take place.


Airfoils & Lift

The angle of incidence is measured by the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage.

An airfoil is a device which gets a useful reaction from air moving over its surface. When an airfoil is moved through the air, it is capable of producing lift. Wings, horizontal tail surfaces, vertical tails surfaces, and propellers are all examples of airfoils.

Generally the wing of small aircraft will look like the cross-section of the figure above. The forward part of an airfoil is rounded and is called the leading edge. The aft part is narrow and tapered and is called the trailing edge. A reference line often used in discussing airfoils is the chord, an imaginary straight line joining the extremities of the leading and trailing edges.

Angle of Incidence: The angle of incidence is the angle formed by the longitudinal axis of the airplane and the chord of the wing. The longitudinal axis is an imaginary line that extends lengthwise through the fuselage from nose to tail. The angle of incidence is measured by the angle at which the wing is attached to the fuselage. The angle of incidence is fixed --it normally cannot be changed by the pilot. (An exception is the Vought F8U Crusader.)

Bernoulli's Principle: To understand how lift is produced, we must examine a phenomenon discovered many years ago by the scientist Bernoulli and later called Bernoulli's Principle: The pressure of a fluid (liquid or gas) decreases at points where the speed of the fluid increases. In other words, Bernoulli found that within the same fluid, in this case air, high speed flow is associated with low pressure, and low speed flow with high pressure. This principle was first used to explain changes in the pressure of fluid flowing within a pipe whose cross-sectional area varied. In the wide section of the gradually narrowing pipe, the fluid moves at low speed, producing high pressure. As the pipe narrows it must contain the same amount of fluid. In this narrow section, the fluid moves at high speed, producing low pressure.

An important application of this phenomenon is made in giving lift to the wing of an airplane, an airfoil. The airfoil is designed to increase the velocity of the airflow above its surface, thereby decreasing pressure above the airfoil. Simultaneously, the impact of the air on the lower surface of the airfoil increases the pressure below. This combination of pressure decrease above and increase below produces lift.

Lift: Probably you have held your flattened hand out of the window of a moving automobile. As you inclined your hand to the wind, the force of air pushed against it forcing your hand to rise. The airfoil (in this case, your hand) was deflecting the wind which, in turn, created an equal and opposite dynamic pressure on the lower surface of the airfoil, forcing it up and back. The upward component of this force is lift; the backward component is drag.

Pressure is reduced is due to the smaller space the air has above the wing than below. Air cannot go through the wing, so it must push around it. The surface air molecules push between the wing and outer layers of air. Due to the bump of the airfoil, the space is smaller and the molecules must go faster. According to Bernoulli's Law, faster air has lower air pressure, and thus the high pressure beneath the wing pushes up to cause lift.


Boeing Schedules 787 Dreamliner First Flight For Q2 2009; First Delivery For Q1 2010 - malaysiakini

Boeing has announced an updated schedule for its all-new 787 Dreamliner programme that moves the commercial jet's first flight into the second quarter of 2009 and first delivery into the first quarter of 2010.

The new schedule reflects the impact of disruption caused by the recent Machinists' strike along with the requirement to replace certain fasteners in early production airplanes, it said in a statement.

"Our industry team has made progress with structural testing, systems hardware qualification and production, but we must adjust our schedule for these two unexpected disruptions," said Boeing Commercial Airplanes President and CEO Scott Carson.

Prior to the strike that halted much of the company's commercial airplane work from early September into November, the 787 was to make its first flight late in the fourth quarter of 2008, it said.

First delivery was slated for the third quarter of 2009, said Beoing.

"We're laser focused on what needs to be done to prepare for first flight," said Pat Shanahan, 787 programme vice-president.

"We will overcome this set of circumstances as we have others in the past, and we understand clearly what needs to be done moving forward."

Included in the preparations for first flight, Shanahan said, are finalising and incorporating remaining engineering changes and completing systems testing, qualifications and certification.

Boeing is evaluating the specific impact of this delay on customer delivery dates and will provide customers with updated schedules once completed.

The company is also determining any financial impact from this schedule change and will incorporate that into updated financial and overall airplane delivery guidance that will be released at a later date.

Airplane Parts Definition And Function ( Part 8 ) - Spoilers

Spoilers are small, hinged plates on the top portion of wings. Spoilers can be used to slow an aircraft, or to make an aircraft descend, if they are deployed on both wings. Spoilers can also be used to generate a rolling motion for an aircraft, if they are deployed on only one wing. This slide shows what happens when the pilot only deflects the spoiler on the right wing.

Spoilers Deployed on Both Wings

When the pilot activates the spoilers, the plates flip up into the air stream. The flow over the wing is disturbed by the spoiler, the drag of the wing is increased, and the lift is decreased. Spoilers can be used to "dump" lift and make the airplane descend; or they can be used to slow the airplane down as it prepares to land. When the airplane lands on the runway, the pilot usually brings up the spoilers to kill the lift, keep the plane on the ground, and make the brakes work more efficiently. The friction force between the tires and the runway depends on the "normal" force, which is the weight minus the lift. The lower the lift, the better the brakes work. The additional drag of the spoilers also slows the plane down.

Spoiler Deployed on Only One Wing

A single spoiler is used to bank the aircraft; to cause one wing tip to move up and the other wing tip to move down. The banking creates an unbalanced side force component of the large wing lift force which causes the aircraft's flight path to curve. (Airplanes turn because of banking, not because of the force generated by the rudder.

On the figure, the airplane's right wing spoiler is deployed, while the left wing spoiler is stored flat against the wing surface (as viewed from the rear of the airplane). The flow over the right wing will be disturbed by the spoiler, the drag of this wing will be increased, and the lift will decrease relative to the left wing. The lift force (F) is applied at the center of pressure of the segment of the wing containing the spoiler. This location is some distance (L) from the aircraft center of gravity which creates a torque

T = F * L

about the center of gravity. The net torque causes the aircraft to rotate about its center of gravity. The resulting motion will roll the aircraft to the right (clockwise) as viewed from the rear. If the pilot reverses the spoiler deflections (right spoiler flat and left spoiler up) the aircraft will roll in the opposite direction. We have chosen to name the left wing and right wing based on a view from the back of the aircraft towards the nose, because that is the direction in which the pilot is looking.

When you travel on an airliner, watch the wings during turns. The pilot rolls the aircraft in the direction of the turn. You will probably be surprised at how little deflection is necessary to bank (roll) a large airliner. But be warned that there is a possible source of confusion on some airliners. We have been talking about rolling the aircraft by using a spoiler near the center of the wing chord to decrease the lift of one wing. On most airliners, the aircraft is rolled by using ailerons to increase the lift on one wing and decrease the lift on the other wing. This produces an unbalanced force, which causes the roll. You can tell whether an airliner is using spoilers or ailerons by noticing where the moving part is located. At the trailing edge, it's an aileron; between the leading and trailing edges, it's a spoiler. (Now you can dazzle the person sitting next to you on the plane!)

160 AirAsia Passengers Stranded In Bangkok Back Home - malaysiakini

KUALA LUMPUR, Dec 2 - Some 160 AirAsia passengers who were stranded in Bangkok since Nov 24 following the closure the Suvarnabhumi and Don Muang airports in the Thai capital after being overrun by anti-government protestors, arrived at the LCCT Terminal in Sepang on Monday night.

They were flown back on a 'rescue flight' arranged by the airline to bring back its passenger via the U-Tapao air base outside Bangkok.

The passengers all expressed how glad they were to be back after the 'harrowing' time spent waiting for a flight home.

Housewife Khadijah Mohd Shah, 64, said she was very grateful to be listed on the 'rescue' flight.

Khadijaah said she was in Bangkok to visit her son who works in Pattaya.

Businessman V. Pathmanathan, 43, said he had brought his family to Bangkok for a holiday and did not expect the turn of events.

"I was shocked by what was happening. There were thousands of protestors at Suvarnabhumi Airport and later followed by hundreds of soldiers.

"Luckily a friend brought us out of there. I really feared for the safety of my family," said Pathmanathan, who was accompanied by his wife, mother-in-law and three children.

For Koay Bee Leng, 30s, a private sector employee, she and her husband were supposed to be back at work on Monday.

"We had to take emergency leave and will return to our jobs tomorrow," she said.

Yaw Damper

Yaw Damping is provided by two completely independent dampers which can be operated singly or simultaneously. The prime function of the system is to minimise Duch Roll by providing automatic rudder displacement proportional to and opposing the amount of yaw experienced.
One yaw damper controls the upper rudder the other the lower. Each yaw damper has an associated coupler which operates as a rate gyro and senses yaw. The damper system then provides the necessary rudder movement to oppose and damp out the yaw. Rudder displacement resulting from yaw damper input is limited to 5 deg to prevent full rudder being applied in the event of a yaw damper malfunction.
The lower yaw damper is powered electrically from the Essential Radio Bus, upper yaw damper is powered from the No 2 Radio Bus.
Two yaw damper warning flags on the rudder and elevator position indicator are biased out of view when the respective yaw damper is engaged. Some aircraft have green lights instead of the warning flags, lights are green when the damper is engaged.
Each yaw damper controls it's associated rudder through a transfer valve on the rudder power unit. The upper damper uses system B, the lower damper system A. The loss of either hydraulic system pressure will result in the loss of the associated yaw damper. If this occurs a loss damper disengaged warning will NOT occur.
The only common circuitry between the yaw dampers and the autopilot is an interlock that requires at least one yaw damper to be on in
flight before the autopilot can be engaged.